1. I don’t know of any definitive answer, but James Hopwood Jeans in his 1947 book “_The Growth of Physical Science_”, page 7, suggests the Babylonians – which used a sexagesimal numeric system – divided the circle into 360 degrees. Quote:

    > Some think they did this by taking the angle of the equilateral triangle as their fundamental unit, and dividing this into the usual 60 subunits. Others think that astronomical considerations may have come into play. When the early Babylonians first tried to measure the number of days in the year, they would find it was about 360. …

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